Typical linguistic characteristics

 

Shown here using examples taken from Ladin of Gherdëina:

Palatised (slender) vowels taken from Latin CA and GA and cia and gia:

BUCCA(M) bocia 'mouth'
CANE(M) cian 'dog'
CABALLU(M) ciaval 'horse'
GALLU(M) gial 'chicken'

 

The lenisation of silent inter-vowel consonants in the following variations:

Sonorisation:

CATENA(M) ciadëina 'chain'

Spirantisation:

SAPERE savëi 'knowledge'

Tilisation:

FORMICA(M) furmia 'ant'

 

Retention of connected consonants with L (BL, CL, FL, GL, PL):

BLANK (german Loanword) blanch 'white'
CLAVE(M) tle 'key'
FLATU(M) fla 'breath'
GLACIA(M) [spoken Latin] dlacia 'ice'
PLACERE plajëi 'fallen'

The consonant connection CL is modified to tl-, GL- to dl-.

 

Retention of endings -(e)s for the plurals of masculine and feminine nouns and adjectives:

i ciulei-es scur-es 'the dark cellars'
la gialin-es spevi-es 'the shy chickens'

 

Reduction of double consonants (degeminification) to simple consonants:

FLAMMA(M) flama 'flame'
TERRA(M) tiera 'earth'
VACCA(M) vacia 'cow'

 

Preservation of the ending -(e)s for second person singular of the verb conjugations:

tu mai-es 'you eat'
tu ciant-es 'you sing'

 

Delabialisation from Latin QUA to ka:

QUATTUOR cater 'four'

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